Under 2 MOU


Name of initiative Under2 Coalition
LPAA initiative Yes
NAZCA Initiative Yes
Website address http://under2mou.org
Related initiatives
Starting year 2015
End year
Secretariat Tim Ash Vie

Under2 Coalition Secretariat Director The Climate Group TAshVie@theclimategroup.org 2nd Floor, Riverside Building, County Hall, Belvedere Rd, London, SE1 7PB, United Kingdom +44 (0)20 7960 2970

Organisational structure The Climate Group acts as secretariat of the Under2 Coalition.

The Under2 Coalition is predominantly driven by state, regional and provincial governments.

Co-Chairs The work of the Under2 Coalition is driven by our Co-Chairs, which represent and promote our collective vision and goals. Our Co-Chairs are: Edmund G. Brown Jr., Governor of California Philippe Couillard, Premier of Québec Winfried Kretschmann, Minister-President of Baden-Württemberg Willies Mchunu, Premier of KwaZulu-Natal Aristóteles Sandoval, Governor of Jalisco Jay Weatherill, Premier of South Australia

Steering Group

The Co-Chairs are supported by a Steering Group, which determines and oversees the strategic direction.

Our Steering Group member governments are: Australian Capital Territory, Baden-Württemberg, Basque Country, Brittany, California, Catalonia, Jalisco, KwaZulu-Natal, Lombardy, North Rhine-Westphalia, Ontario, Québec, São Paulo, South Australia, Vermont, Wales.

Global Ambassador

The Global Ambassador helps to raise the awareness of the Coalition’s ambitions globally. Our Global Ambassador is Christiana Figueres, former Executive Secretary of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and Convener of Mission 2020.

Geographical coverage Global
Functions of Initiative Implementation, Political dialogue
Main activities Goal setting, Policy planning and recommendations
Side activities Knowledge dissemination and exchange, Fundraising
Name of lead organisation The Climate Group
Type of lead organisation NGO/Civil Society
Location/Nationality of lead organisation United Kingdom


Description "Subnational governments are partnering to advance a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) on Subnational Global Climate Leadership. This agreement identifies action being taken by jurisdictions around the world. This MOU will not introduce new legal constraints on participating jurisdictions but will demonstrate clear and lasting commitment to reduce emissions in the decades to come."
Goals "The Under2 MOU brings together ambitious states and regions willing to make a number of key commitments towards emissions reduction and to help galvanize action at COP21. Central to the agreement is that all signatories agree to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions 80 to 95%, or limit to 2 metric tons CO2-equivalent per capita, by 2050."
Activities "Under2 MOU is in line with scientifically established emissions levels necessary to limit global warming below 2 degrees Celsius; offers an opportunity for states, regions, and cities to share ideas and best practices on how to reduce GHGs and promote renewable energy; provides a model for other subnationals to join; builds momentum and collaboration ahead of the UN Climate Change Conference in Paris and encourages greater national ambition at those negotiations; brings international attention to the actions and ambitious reduction goals of climate leaders at a subnational level around the globe; demonstrates the collective impact of these actions and commitments across states, regions, cities, and countries; and highlights the diversity of approaches to reducing emissions."

Monitoring and Impacts

Sustainable Development Impact:
E SDG goals icons-individual-rgb-13.png  
Short and long-time objectives The Under2 MOU (Memorandum of Understanding) is a long-term commitment by ambitious sub-national governments to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions 80 to 95%, or limit to 2 metric tons CO2-equivalent per capita, by 2050.

The Under2 Coalition aims to support state, regional, and city government signatories to drive action and share expertise in three areas: developing deep decarbonization pathways; measuring and reporting progress and scaling policy solutions. This work aims to demonstrate the art of the possible thus helping national governments in their efforts to achieve their NDCs. Each signatory’s individual objectives in order to reach the Coalition’s common target are described in their Appendix to the Under2 MOU: http://under2mou.org/founding-signatories/.

Roadmap and work plan The roadmap is currently being established. The coalition proposes to focus on three streams of work:

• PATHWAYS - supporting Under2 MOU signatories to develop short and long-term goals and pathways towards deep decarbonisation; • POLICY – putting in place the policies that work through knowledge sharing, technical support and cooperation; • PROGRESS - ensuring governments have the expertise and systems in place to measure their emissions accurately and track progress.

How are you tracking progress of your initiative Signatories to the Under2 MOU are invited to report their GHG emissions and climate actions to the Compact of States and Regions.

The Compact showcases individual and collective GHG reduction targets made by sub-national governments around the world. Each year, an assessment of progress toward those commitments takes place through the disclosure of GHG inventory data. The Compact commitments are also included in the Non-State Actor Zone for Climate Action (NAZCA) platform (http://climateaction.unfccc.int/), the online tool developed by the United Nations with the governments of France and Peru for COP21. https://www.theclimategroup.org/Compact

Progress that has been made by your initiative The Climate Group was selected as the Under2 Coalition’s official secretariat at COP21 and secured funding to establish the first phase of the Under2 Coalition. This enabled the establishment of the secretariat, recruitment of further signatories and creation of work streams required in order to support signatories to achieve their deep decarbonization objectives. Specific progress made in 2016 includes:

- A total of 187 jurisdictions have signed or endorsed the Under2 MOU since May 2015. The Coalition now represents a third of the global economy, $28.8 trillion in GDP and over 1.2 billion people.

- The first sub-national Clean Energy Ministerial was held in San Francisco in June 2016 alongside CEM7. This brought together signatories to the Under2 MOU to share learnings on subnational clean energy policy and participate in a dedicated workshop on long-term pathways planning.

- 37 state and regional government signatories to the Under2 MOU have started reporting to the Compact of States and Regions.

- A dedicated workshop was held for Under2 signatories alongside Climate Week NYC on policy learning for energy efficiency.

- Research on MRV support and guidelines for state and regional governments has commenced including analysis of reporting protocols and methodologies.

Tracking adaptation progress (quantitative) We do not have data available regarding adaptation progress to date. Data should be available in 2017.
Tracking mitigation progress (quantitative) Stakeholders committed: 206 signatories have committed to the target.
Tracking finance progress(quantitative)
Available reporting Each signatory’s individual objectives in order to reach the Coalition’s common target are described in their Appendix to the Under2 MOU (Memorandum of Understanding). The appendices are available online: http://under2mou.org/founding-signatories/.

By signing the Under2 MOU, signatories commit to start working towards consistent monitoring, reporting and verification of their GHG emissions. Jurisdictions are also incentivized to annually disclose their climate targets and progress. The Compact of States and Regions, the global benchmark for transparency and accountability on climate change mitigation, is one of the mechanism that makes this possible. Disclosed commitments will also be featured on the Non-state Actor Zone for Climate Action (NAZCA) platform (http://climateaction.unfccc.int/), the online tool developed by the United Nations with the governments of France and Peru for COP21. The 2016 Compact of States and Regions Disclosure Report will be publicly available at the end of 2016, and will reflect on the level of ambition and assess progress towards achieving governments’ climate commitments. https://www.theclimategroup.org/Compact

One or two success stories achieved • Pathways development in several US states is underway.

• 2016 saw strong recruitment of several states and regions in developing countries, which has greatly broadened the scope of the Under2 Coalition, with presence on all 6 continents (33 countries).

How to join your initiative Information on how to join is available here: http://under2mou.org/join/


Participants Number Names
Members 206  
Companies 0
Business organisations 0
Research and educational organisations 0
Non-governmental organisations 0
National states 20 Armenia,  Canada,  Chile,  Costa Rica,  Czech Republic,  Denmark,  Fiji,  France,  Germany,  Italy,  Luxembourg,  Marshall Islands,  Mexico,  Netherlands,  Norway,  Panama,  Peru,  Sweden,  United Kingdom
Governmental actors 0
Regional / state / county actors 142 Abruzzo,  Acre,  Aguascalientes,  Alsace,  Amazonas (Brazil),  Amazonas (Peru),  Andalusia,  Ararat,  ARDCI (Association of 33 subnationals),  Attica,  Australian Capital Territory,  Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes,  Azores,  Azuay,  Baden-Württemberg,  Baja California,  Basel-Landschaft,  Basel-Stadt,  Basilicata,  Basque Country,  Bas-Rhin,  Bavaria,  British Columbia,  Brittany,  California,  Caquetá,  Catalonia,  Chhattisgarh,  Chiapas,  Colima,  Connecticut,  Cross River State,  Drenthe,  East Kalimantan,  Emilia-Romagna,  Gifu,  Guainía,  Guaviare,  Hesse,  Hidalgo,  Huánuco,  Jalisco,  Jämtland,  Jiangsu Province,  Kathmandu Valley,  Kotayk,  KwaZulu-Natal,  La Réunion,  Laikipia County,  Lombardy,  Loreto,  Lower Austria,  Lower Saxony,  Madeira,  Massachusetts,  Mato Grosso,  Mexico,  State,  Michoacán,  Midi-Pyrénées,  Minnesota,  Navarra,  New Hampshire,  New York State,  North Brabant,  North Holland,  North Rhine-Westphalia,  Northwest Territories,  Nouvelle-Aquitaine,  Ontario,  Oregon,  Pastaza,  Pays de la Loire,  Pernambuco,  Piedmont,  Québec,  Queensland,  Queretaro,  Quintana Roo,  Rhineland-Palatinate,  Rhode Island,  Rio de Janeiro,  Rondônia,  San Martín,  Santa Fe,  São Paulo State,  Sardinia,  Schleswig-Holstein,  Scotland,  Shirak,  Sichuan Province,  South Australia,  South Holland,  South Sumatra,  Tabasco,  Telangana,  Thuringia,  Tocantins,  Ucayali,  Veneto,  Vermont,  Victor,  Virginia,  Wales,  Wallonia,  Washington,  West Kalimantan,  Western Cape,  Yucatán
City / municipal actors 44 Alliance of Peaking Pioneer Cities (APPC),  Atlanta City,  Austin City,  Beijing City,  Boulder City,  Bristol City,  Budapest City,  Greater Manchester City,  Guédiawaye City,  Los Angeles City,  Mexico City,  Montgomery County (MD),  Nampula City,  New York City,  Oakland City,  Orlando City,  Pittsburgh City,  Portland City,  Quelimane City,  Sacramento City,  San Francisco City,  Santiago City,  São Paulo City,  Seattle City,  Vancouver City,  Zhenjiang City
Intergovernmental organisations 0
Financial Institutions 0
Other members 0
Supporting partners 0
Number of members in the years
Have only national states as participators No


Transport Agriculture Forestry Business Financial institutions Buildings Industry Waste Cities and subnational governments Short Term Pollutants International maritime transport Energy Supply Fluorinated gases Energy efficiency Renewable energy Supply chain emission reductions Adaptation Other Resilience Innovation Energy Access and Efficiency Private Finance
Yes No Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes No No No No Yes Yes No
Last update: 27 June 2018 08:34:35

Not only have national states as participators